Here is some common Islamic phrases:
Al Salamu Alaikum = Peace be upon you,
This is Muslims greeting, it is beautiful, isn’t it?
The reply to the greeting is:
Wa Alaikum Al Salam wa rahmatu Allah = And upon you peace and mercy of Allah.
Allahu Akbar = ALLAH is BIGGER, it mean Allah is Greater and more Mighty than anything in the universe.
Salla Allahu ‘Alayhi Wa Sallam = Blessing of Allah upon him and peace, this is usually is said directly after the mentioning of Prophet Muhammad.
‘Alayhi Al Salam = upon him be peace, this is said after the mentioning of other prophets and messengers of Allah.
Jazakum Allahu khairun = May Allah reward you with Good, it use like thank you
Bism Allah = in the name of ALLAH, you use it whenever you want to do almost anything: eating, drinking…
Bism Allah Al Rahman Al Raheem = in the name of Allah the Beneficent the Merciful.
Al Hamdu Lillah = Praise be to ALLAH = you use it when you want to say thank God.
SubhanaWho Whata’ala = Glorified and exalted is He.
Subhana Allah = Glory be to Allah.
‘Azza wa Jel = Dignified and Majestic (Allah).
Astaghfiru Allah = O, Forgive me Allah.
A’udhu Billah = I seek refuge with Allah.
A’udhu Billah Min Al Shaytan Al Rajeem = I seek refuge with Allah from the accursed Satin.
Masha’ ALLAH = What ALLAH have willed, you use it in the place of wow or incredible or great.
Insha’ Allah = If Allah wills it, this one is used often which means with the permission of Allah and it is important to say it.
La ilaha illa Allah = There is no god but Allah.
Shahadah = declaration or testimony of faith.
Ash-hadu An’na La ilaha illa ALLAH, Wa Ash-hadu An’na Muhammadan Rasool ALLAH = I bear witness that there is no god but ALLAH, and I bear witness that Muhammad is a messenger of ALLAH.
Tawakeltu Ala Allah = I have put my faith in Allah.
Inna Lillahi Wa inna ilayhi Raji’oon = we belong to Allah and indeed to him we return, we say it usually when we hear someone dies.
This is very interesting video to learn some common Muslims Phrase in Arabic: